PHOTOGRAPHS AND ILLUSTRATIONS IN THE BIOGRAPHY RESOURCE CENTER HAVE BEEN USED WITH THE PERMISSION OF THE FOLLOWING SOURCES:

 

Kay Tobin Lahusen: Barbara Gittings

Landov: John Adams, Freddy Adu, Rania Al-Abdullah, Prince Albert, Roger Ames, Tom Anderson, Tadao Ando, Judd Apatow, Shizuka Arakawa, Alan Ball, Michael Ball, Banda el Recodo, Lamont Bentley, Wolfgang Bernhard, Big & Rich, Paul Yaw Boateng, Zach Braff, Rose Marie Bravo, Emma Bunton, Reggie Bush, Amanda Bynes, Santiago Calatrava, Marcel Albert Carne, June Carter Cash, Jim Caviezel, Dave Chappelle, Ciara, Peter Cincotti, Helen Clark, Patricia Clarkson, Stephen Colbert, Bill Condon, Anderson Cooper, Cowboy Troy, Paula Creamer, Romeo Crennel, Sidney Crosby, Andrae Crouch, Jamie Cullum, Johnny Damon, The Darkness, George David, Rosario Dawson, Guerrino de Luca, Drea de Matteo, Janice Dickinson, Waris Dirie, Nate Dogg, Dolce & Gabbana, Ericka Dunlap, James Dyson, Brenda Fassie, Leslie Feist, Allyson Felix, Craig Ferguson, Niall Ferguson, Joschka Fischer, Valery Gergiev, Grandmaster Flash, Vivian Green, Mark Haddon, Paul Hamm, Sarah Harmer, Naomie Harris, Carey Hart, Reed Hastings, Lalah Hathaway, Steven J. Heyer, Gary Hirshberg, Chad Holliday, Felicity Huffman, Hale Irwin, Jade Jagger, Victor Jara, Elfriede Jelinek, Scarlett Johansson, Abigail Johnson, Jimmie Johnson, Sarah Jones, Gary Jules, Charlie Kaufman, Liva Kebede, John Kerry, Teresa Heinz Kerry, Athanasius Kircher, Keira Knightley, Marita Koch, Elizabeth Kostova, Bernard Kouchner, Gyorgy Kurtag, Ken Kutaragi, Guy Laliberte, John Legend, Stanislaw Lem, Ron Livingston, Lindsay Lohan, Los Palominos, Christian Louboutin, Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva, Anna Magnani, Alexander McCall Smith, Martin McDonagh, Judy McGrath, Phil McGraw, Nancy Myers, Pilar Montenegro, Jorge Moreno, Kathryn Morris, Mswati III, Kim Mulkey-Robertson, Brittany Murphy, Riccardo Muti, Nursultan Nazarbayev, Ann Nesby, Nicholas V, Nickelback, Barack Obama, Stella Obasanjo, Joel Osteen, Dawn Ostroff, Clive Owen, Daniel F. Packer, Michelle Peluso, Tyler Perry, Charles E. Phillips Jr., James Pickens Jr., Anna Politkovskaya, Samantha Power, Anders Fogh Rasmussen, Lionel Richie, Rebecca Romijn-Stamos, John Wallis Rowe, Brenda Russell, Marcus Samuelsson, Pablo de Sarasate, Michael Schumacher, John Sentamu, Gyanendra Shah, Maria Sharapova, Henry Simmons, Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, Lydia Pavlovna Skoblikova, Jimmy Smith, Marco Antonio Solis, Margaret Spellings, Anne Stevens, Rene Syler, Michael Tait, Renata Tebaldi, Michael Tilson Thomas, Daniel Vasella, Vaira Vike-Freiberga, Rasheed Wallace, Jeremy Wariner, Josh White, Stanley Williams, Bill Withers, Patricia A. Woertz, Ying Yang Twins, Viktor Yushchenko, Dieter Zetsche, Zhang Ziyi, Slavoj Zizek

Latina: Christy Haubegger

Latino Institute: Millie Rivera

David Laurence Photo: Margaret Laurence

LCEL Inc.: Carmen Marc Valvo

Lee Enterprises: Mary Junck

Nancy Ann Lee: Abbey Lincoln, Henry Threadgill, Charles Wright

Elizabeth Lehmann: Jan Carr

Kevin Leong: Anna Sui

Liberty Studio: Paul Isaki

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The following photographs used courtesy of the individual:

Nathan Aaseng, Raydean Acevedo, Diane Ackerman, Susan Yoder Ackerman, Alma Flor Ada, H. Leslie Adams, Fleur Adcock, Kimberly M. Adlerman, Arnold Adoff, Keiti Aki, Susan Wittig Albert, George Alcorn, Stephen Alcorn, Lloyd Alexander, Mabel Esther Allan, Robert L. Allen, Tina Allen, Melba Allen-Buillard, Ralph A. Alpher, George Ancona, Isabel Anders, Del Marie Anderson, Kevin J. Anderson, Kirsty Anderson, M. Tobin Anderson, Poul Anderson, William G. Anderson, Benny Andrews, Donna Andrews, Joseph Patrick Anthony, Patricia Anthony, Piers Anthony, Allen Appel, Carolyn Arends, Rae Armantrout, Jennifer Armstrong, William H. Armstrong, Caroline Arnold, Marsha Diane Arnold, Kenny Aronoff, Marc Aronson, Maria Celeste Arraras, Stephen Arrington, Mike Artell, Molefi Kete Asante, Catherine Asaro, Frank Asch, Brent Ashabranner, Sandy Asher, A.A. Attanasio, Alvin B. 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Carter, Al Carusone, Mary Casanova, Annette Cascone, Marie Romero Cash, Peter Catalanotto, Heather Cato, Denys Cazet, Mel Cebulash, Aidan Chambers, June Chan, Ann Chandonnet, Eileen Charbonneau, Debra Chasnoff, George Chauncey, Nick Chavez, Christopher Cheng, Ayoka Chenzira, Debbi Chocolate, Gennifer Choldenko, Matt Christopher, Seymour Chwast, John Clapp, Clara Gillow Clark, Guy Clark, Elizabeth L. Clarke, Elaine Clayton, Sandra Clayton, Beverly Cleary, Elizabeth Cleaver, Andrew Clements, Bruce Clements, Michelle Cliff, Shirley Climo, Jerrie Cobb, Vicki Cobb, Anne Coe, Sholom Cohen, Janis Cole, Sheila R. Cole, Mihael Coleman, Sharleen Collicott, James Collier, Hila Colman, Nathan Conyers, Glen Cook, Jean Thor Cook, Afua Cooper, Floyd Cooper, Ilene Cooper, Jane Cope, Scott Corbett, Barbara Corcoran, Olga Cossi, Joy Cowley, Clinton Cox, Judith Crabtree, Sharon Creech, Victoria Crenson, Luigi Crespo, Helen Cresswell, Gary Crew, Nina Crews, Bill Crider, Mark Crilley, Carolyn Croll, Constance Crook, Gillian Cross, Kevin Crossley-Holland, Margaret Cruikshank, Chris Crutcher, James N. Crutchfield, Pat Cummings, Doug Cushman, Karen Cushman, Justin D’Ath, Dolores B. Dace, Niki Daly, John Danakas, Rosalyn R. Dance, Christine M. Darden, Leon Dash, O. R. Dathorne, Diane Davidson, Artur Davis, Danny K. Davis, Jenny Davis, Tim Davis, Alexandra Day, Sonia De Leon de Vega, Rima de Vallbona, Sis Boulos Deans, Julie Reece Deaver, Barthe DeClements, Cynthia DeFelice, Pierre Deligne, Rick DeMarinis, Marianna Dengler, Brazeal Dennard, Michael Denneny, Martin Denny, Christel Desmoinaux, Carl Deuker, Paddie Devon, Ariane Dewey, Thomas M. Disch, Berlie Doherty, Kim Doner, John Donovan, Mary T. Donze, Arthur Dorros, Mark Doty, Blaise Douglas, Margaret Douroux, Terry Dowling, Dale B. Drakeford, Harry G. Drickamer, Diane Duane, Martin Duberman, Jean Ducey, Tessa Duder, Linnea Due, Adele Dueck, John Duggleby, Frank Dukepoo, Sherry DuPree, Lynda Durrant, Julie Durrell, Deanne Durrett, Dale Dye, Thomas J. Dygard, Micky Earnshaw, MaryAnn Easley, Amy Ehrlich, Gunnar Ekelof, Ron Elisha, Irvin W. Elliott, Louise Elliott, Sarah Ellis, Harlan Ellison, Mary Elting, Phillip Emeagwali, Carol Emshwiller, Judith Enderle, Anna Cherrie Epps, Lisa Campbell Ernst, Martin Espada, William T. Esrey, Eleanor Estes, Loren D. Estleman, Elzbieta Ettinger, Greg Evans, Lillian Faderman, David Fair, Etta Falconer, Zulima V. Farber, Nancy Farmer, Howard Fast, Safi Faye, Tom Feelings, Lloyd Ferguson, Carol Fenner, Anna Fienberg, Marty Rhodes Figley, Judy Finchler, Anne Fine, Aileen Fisher, Sheree Fitch, Audrey Flack, Sid Fleischman, Jennifer Fleischner, Candace Fleming, Renee Fleming, Ralph Fletcher, Alex Flinn, Helen Flint, Rachel Flynn, Mary Alice Fontenot, Anna Forbes, Carolyn Mott Ford, Evan Ford, Alan Dean Foster, Henry W. Foster Jr., Mary Virginia Fox, Dennis Fradin, Harold Freeman, David French, Aaron Fricke, Su Friedrich, Bernice Friesen, Mary Bahr Fritts, Virginia Lyn Fry, Judie Angell Gaberman, Norma Gaffron, Laszlo Gal, Annouchka Gravel Galouchko, Matthew Galvin, Yolanda P. Garcia, Tricia Gardella, Sylvester James Gates, Viola Gates, Jamila Gavin, Marie-Louise Gay, Maurice Gee, Wayne E. Geehan, Arthur Geisert, Margaret Joan Geller, Jean Craighead George, Lindsay Barrett George, Twig C. George, Adele Geras, Alexandra Gerhard-Garcia, Roy Gerrard, Mordicai Gerstein, Charles Ghigna, Faye Gibbons, Patricia Reilly Giff, Barbara Snow Gilbert, Suzie Gilbert, Jan Spivey Gilchrist, Hap Gilliland, Phoebe Gilman, John Gilmore, Mirra Ginsburg, Isabel Joshlin Glaser, Katherine Gleason, Morris Gleitzman, Mel Glenn, Caroline Glyman, Jill Godmilow, Bruce Edward Goldberg, Jacob Goldberg, Barbara Diamond Goldin, Julius Goldstein, Peter Golenbock, Marga Gomez, Arturo Gomez-Pompa, Taro Gomi, Lillian Gonzalez-Pardo, Alison Goodman, Valeri Gorbachev, Mike Gordon, Esin Ili Gokner, Sue Gough, Charlotte Towner Graeber, Rebecca L. Grambo, Cynthia D. Grant, Samuel L. Gravely, Luli Gray, Barbara Marie Green, Rodney Alan Greenblat, Constance Greene, Douglas G. Greene, Diane Greenseid, Pamela D. Greenwood, Valiska Gregory, Pina Grieco-Tiso, Barbara Grier, Adele Griffin, Steven A. Griffin, Helen V. Griffith, Nikki Grimes, Laurel Dee Gugler, Melanie Guile, Lucille Gunning, Donna W. Guthrie, Lee Hadley, Betty Hager, Mary Downing Hahn, Michael T. Hahn, Lynn Hall, Marilyn Halvorson, Anita Hamilton, Carol Hamilton, Morse Hamilton, Dennis Hamley, Barbara Hammer, Susan Hampshire, Suzanne Crowder Han, Wolfram Hanel, Jo Harper, Piers Harper, Don Navarro Harris, E. Lynn Harris, James Andrew Harris, Teddy Harris Jr., Carol Thompson Harrison, David L. Harrison, Peter Hartling, Dennis Haseley, Kerri Hashmi, Erik Haugaard, Katherine B. Hauth, Pete Hautman, Esther Hautzig, Leslie Ann Hayashi, Daniel Hayes, Margaret Haywood, Gillian Heal, Florence Parry Heide, Robert Heilbroner, Larry Heinemann, Brian J. Heinz, Diana Hendry, James Heneghan, Kevin Henkes, Carolee Wells Henney, Julian Henriques, Ernest Henry, Ellenae Henry-Fairhurst, Nat Hentoff, Harry Hepcat, Charlotte Herman, Jules Hermes, Patricia Hermes, Antonia Hernandez, Maria Herrera-Sobek, Steven Herrick, Jennifer Hewitson, William Hezlep, Linda Oatman High, Errol Hill, Lee Sullivan Hill, Pamela Smith Hill, Margaret Hillert, Nette Hilton, Ronald Himler, John C. Himmelman, Anna Grossnickle Hines, Sidney Hite, David D. Ho, Minfong Ho, Valerie Hobbs, Will Hobbs, Mary Ann Hoberman, Roger Hodgson, Jo Hoestlandt, Roald Hoffmann, Gary Hogg, Isabelle Holland, Julia Holland, Ariel Hollinshead, Felice Holman, Joan Holub, Natalie Honeycutt, Brendan Hook, Jeff Hook, William H. Hooks, H.M. Hoover, Lee Bennett Hopkins, Deborah Hopkinson, John R. Horner, Joanne Horniman, Marian Hostetler, James A. Houston, Ellen Howard, Linda Hubalek, Woodleigh Marx Hubbard, Roy D. Hudson, Dean Hughes, John Hughes, Monica Hughes, Ann Hui, Sandra Humphrey, Kristin Hunter, Mollie Hunter, Sara Hoagland Hunter, Johanna Hurwitz, Hilda Hutcherson, Earl Ofari Hutchison, M. Deborrah Hyde, Trina Schart Hyman, Eva Ibbotson, Satomi Ichikawa, Gwendolyn Ifill, Lawson Fusao Inada, Robert Ingpen, Alison Jackson, T.D. Jakes, Elizabeth James, Joseph Robert Janes, Caroline D. Janover, Kenji Jasper, James M. Jay, Jean Jenkins, Sharon Jennings, Ingrid Jensen, Jiang Ji-Li, Francisco Jimenez, Elizabeth Johns, Julie Johnston, Lynne Jonell, Clara Stanton Jones, Jennifer Berry Jones, Barbara Monnot Joosse, Robert Jordan, Joan Kalbacken, Roberta Kalechofsky, James M. 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Krisher, Kathleen Krull, Loretta Krupinski, Joe Kubert, Susan Kuklin, Monica Kulling, Paul Kuroda, Mitsuhiro Kurokawa, Jane Kurtz, Katherine Kurtz, Thomas Eugene Kurtz, Raymond Kurzweil, Yayoi Kusama, Donn Kushner, Ellen Kushner, Karla Kuskin, Dorothea Lachner, Louise Ladd, Alexandria R.T. LaFaye, Bruce LaFontaine, Christa Laird, Martha L. Lambert, Elaine Landau, Jill Marie Landis, Dakota Lane, Robert Samuel Langer, George M. Langford, Mary D. Lankford, Joe Lansdale, Francess Lantz, David LaRochelle, Kathryn Lasky, Richard Latta, Patricia Grace Lauber, Connie Laux, Marie G. Lee, Hughie Lee-Smith, Susan Leeman, Carroll Leevy, Judith Logan Lehne, Katherine Leiner, Isabella Leitner, John Lent, Carol Lerner, Harriet Goldhor Lerner, Ellen Whitney Leroe, Don Lessem, Alison Lester, Bijou Le Tord, Kathleen Leverich, Betty Levin, Miriam Ramsfelder Levin, Gail Carson Levine, Philip Levine, Riki Levinson, Sonia Levitin, Myron Levoy, Betsy Lewin, Ted Lewin, J. 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Markle, Leticia Marquez-Magana, Francesca Martin, Jacqueline Briggs Martin, Cathy Mania, Jan Marino, Janet Mark, Albert Marrin, Brandon Massey, Carol Matas, Peter Matthiessen, Diane Maurer-Mathison, William Mayne, Margaret Mayo, Anne Mazer, Nancy McArthur, Sam McBratney, Megan McCafferty, Anne McCaffrey, Geraldine McCaughrean, Emily Arnold McCully, Michael McCurdy, John McCutcheon, Jack McDevitt, Joyce McDonald, Meme McDonald, Mercedes McDonald, Dennis McDougal, (Margaret) Dusa McDuff, Colleen J. McElroy, Ormond McGill, Ann McGovern, Thomas E. McGowen, Barbara B. McGrath, Robert G. McGruder, Mary Ann McGuigan, Nellie McKay, Tim McKee, Bruce McMillan, Janet McNaughton, Norma McPhee, Susan Meddaugh, J. Gordon Melton, Milton Meltzer, Jean Fairbanks Merrill, Cari Lee Merritt, Jeffrey Meyers, Ben Mikaelsen, Gloria D. Miklowitz, Debbie S. Miller, Gary Spencer Millidge, Irma McDonough Milnes, Luna I. Mishoe, Robert Miskimon, Tony Mitton, Leland E. Modesitt, John Mole, Sy Montgomery, Jose Montoya, Elizabeth Moon, Pat Moon, Terry Moore, Yvette Moore, Yuyi Morales, Nina Morgan, Kyoko Mori, Dave Morice, Isobel V. Morin, Gerald Morris, Lillian Morrison, Taylor Morrison, James Morrow, Barry Moser, Thylias Moss, Bernard Most, Jess Mowry, David Alan Mura, David H. Murdoch, Jimk Murphy, Shirley Rousseau Murphy, Stuart J. Murphy, Kirsty Murray, Walter Dean Myers, Beverley Naidoo, Susan Nally, Lensey Namioka, Donna Jo Napoli, John Nash, Phyllis Reynolds Naylor, Jan Needle, Andrew Neiderman, Ted W. Nelson, Theresa Nelson, Andrea Nelson-Meigs, Joan Nestle, Mary Nethery, Shirlee P. Newman, Lois P. Nicholson, Laura Farnsworth Nielsen, Sonia Nieto, Angela Nissel, Larry Niven, Garth Nix, Perry Nodelman, Jerdine Nolen, Julia Noonan, Brenda Victoria Northeast, Laura Numeroff, Naomi Shihab Nye, Sheldon Oberman, Julie O’Callaghan, Jay O’Callahan, Ami L. Offenbacher, Ayano Ohmi, Frank O’Keefe, Jean Davies Okimoto, Isaac O. 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Schmidt, Karen Lee Schmidt, Anne Elaine Schraff, Ward Schumaker, Amy Schwartz, David Schwartz, Jon Scieszka, Sandra Scoppettone, Ann Herbert Scott, Elaine Scott, Gloria Dean Randle Scott, Robert C. Scott, Lisa Scottoline, Barry Sears, Stephanie Sears, Marilyn W. Seguin, Art Seiden, Olive Senior, Jeff Shaara, Sherry Shahan, Marjorie Weinman Sharmat, Earl D. Shaw, Charles Sheffield, Paul C. Showers, Susan Richards Shreve, Neil Shulman, Neal Shusterman, Susan Shwartz, Alan Sillitoe, Robin L. Silverman, Herma Silverstein, Shel Silverstein, Francesca Simon, Seymour Simon, Marilyn Singer, Muff Singer, Jeanne C. Sinkford, Paul P. Sipiera Jr., Peter Sis, Sheila Sisulu, Norma Skalrek, Floyd Skloot, Robert Skutch, Arthur Slade, Rodney Slater, William Sleator, Jan Slepian, Jane E. Smith, Solomon H. Snyder, Zilpha Keatley Snyder, Donald J. Sobol, Barbara Sofer, Angela Sommer-Bodenburg, Cathy Song, Margo Sorenson, Gary Soto, Ivan Southall, Jan Sovak, Andrea Spalding, Corrine Sparks, Elizabeth George Speare, Nancy Speck, Cornelia Spelman, Jerry Spinelli, Gennady Spirin, Michael Spooner, Nancy Springer, Jyotsna Sreenivasan, Judith St. George, Nicole St. John, Dana Stabenow, Diane Staley, Diane Stanley, George Edward Stanley, Richard P. Stanley, Suzanne Fisher Staples, Mary Steele, Joseph Stein, Joan Steiner, Dorothy Sterling, Jan Romero Stevens, Martha Bennett Stiles, R. L. Stine, Mike Stotter, Todd Strasser, Allan Stratton, Craig A. Strickland, Dorothy S. Strickland, Jeremy Strong, Caroline Stutson, George Sullivan, Louis W. Sullivan, Paul Sullivan, Thomas Sully, Frank Susman, Jake Swamp, Susan Swan, Helen McKendry Swanson, Joyce Sweeney, Lois Szymanski, Simms Taback, Mari Takabayashi, Ronald Takaki, Sandi Takayama, Marc Talbert, Hudson Talbott, Papa Ibra Tall, Erika Tamar, Janet Tashjian, Eleanora E. Tate, Olga Taussky-Todd, Gage Taylor, Theodor Taylor, Mark Christopher Teague, Stephanie Gordon Tessler, Charlene Teters, Jean Thesman, .Bettye Collier Thomas, Frances Thomas, Joyce Carol Thomas, Rob Thomas, Colin Thompson, Julian F. Thompson, Frederick Tillis, Franklin K. Toker, Stephanie S. Tolan, Margaret E.M. Tolbert, Theresa Tomlinson, Ann Tompert, Daniel Torres, Laura Torres, Lucille Travis, Marshall Trimble, Jan Truss, Lap-Chee Tsui, Michael O. Tunnell, Brinton Turkle, Ann Turner, Megan Whalen Turner, Anne Tyler, Rosemary Kissinger Updyke, Jean Ure, Rachel Vail, Jan Van Der Straaten, Nancy Van Laan, Iris Van Rynbach, Vivian Vande Velde, Argelia Velez-Rodriguez, Beverly Vidrine, Lydia Villa-Komaroff, Roseanna Vitro, Julie Vivas, Gerald Vizenor, Carole G. 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